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Test Bank for Sociology A Brief Introduction 13th by Schaefer

Test Bank for Sociology A Brief Introduction 13th by Schaefer

Test Bank for Sociology A Brief Introduction 13th by Schaefer

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Chapter 1   Understanding Sociology

 

1) The awareness that allows people to comprehend the link between their immediate, personal social settings and the remote, impersonal social world is called

A) the sociological imagination.

B) anthropology.

C) a theory.

D) verstehen.

 

2) Trying to understand why your roommate prefers a certain genre of music, over others, is an example of using one’s

A) cultural capital.

B) conflict perspective.

C) double consciousness.

D) sociological imagination.

 

3) A key element in the sociological imagination is the ability to view one’s own society

A) from the perspective of personal experience.

B) from the perspective of cultural biases.

C) as an outsider.

D) as an insider.

 

4) C. Wright Mills advocated the use of the sociological imagination to view divorce in the United States because divorce

A) is a serious personal problem for numerous men and women.

B) is not just an individual’s personal problem but a societal concern.

C) may create emotional scars for divorcees.

D) has been a serious problem throughout history.

 

5) The scientific study of social behavior and human groups is known as

A) psychology.

B) political science.

C) anthropology.

D) sociology.

 

6) The body of knowledge obtained using methods based upon systematic observation is called a(n)

A) theory.

B) verstehen.

C) science.

D) ideal type.

 

 

 

7) Sociology is considered a science because sociologists

A) teach at respected universities.

B) engage in organized and systematic study of phenomena to enhance understanding.

C) receive government funding for research projects.

D) construct middle-range theories to explain social behavior.

 

8) Sociology, anthropology, economics, and history are fields within the

A) natural sciences.

B) social sciences.

C) medical sciences.

D) humanities.

 

9) Which of the following academic disciplines emphasizes the influence that society has on people’s attitudes and behavior and the ways in which people shape society?

A) Anthropology

B) Economics

C) Sociology

D) Physics

 

10) Which social science would be interested in studying individual cases of emotional stress among workers, investors, and business owners?

A) History

B) Economics

C) Sociology

D) Psychology

 

11) A social scientist would be likely to study the

A) composition of a meteorite discovered in a remote area of Siberia.

B) reasons for the decreasing divorce rate in the U.S.

C) newest procedure in heart transplant surgery.

D) possibility of life on Mars.

 

12) Sociologists argue that, unlike scientific knowledge, commonsense conclusions are not

A) published.

B) reliable.

C) politically correct.

D) easily disseminated.

 

13) An attempt to explain problems, actions, or behavior in a comprehensive manner is called a(n)

A) science.

B) typology.

C) theory.

D) ideal type.

 

 

 

14) In Émile Durkheim’s study of suicide, he related suicide rates to

A) personal depression.

B) personal stress.

C) the extent to which people were integrated into the group life of a society.

D) climatic conditions such as oppressive heat, heavy rain, and cold winters.

 

15) Émile Durkheim’s explanation of suicide was scientific because he

A) developed conclusions based on a systematic examination of data.

B) carefully studied the personalities of hundreds of suicide victims.

C) worked in a university setting.

D) divided suicide into four distinctive categories.

 

16) Émile Durkheim is known for his classic sociological study of

A) suicide.

B) abortion.

C) soccer.

D) crowd control.

 

17) The discipline of sociology was given its name by the French theorist

A) Émile Durkheim.

B) Auguste Comte.

C) Harriet Martineau.

D) Marcel Marceau.

 

18) Which sociologist translated the works of Auguste Comte into English and emphasized the impact the economy, laws, trade, and population could have on contemporary social problems?

A) Émile Durkheim

B) Jane Addams

C) Harriet Martineau

D) Talcott Parsons

 

19) Which early sociologist applied the concept of evolution to societies in order to explain how they change or evolve over time?

A) Émile Durkheim

B) Charles Darwin

C) Harriet Martineau

D) Herbert Spencer

 

20) Anomie refers to a

A) model that serves as a measuring rod against which actual cases can be evaluated.

B) loss of direction that is felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective.

C) classification scheme containing two or more categories.

D) type of suicide that is based on depression.

 

 

 

21) The concept of anomie was introduced into sociology by

A) Auguste Comte.

B) Émile Durkheim.

C) Max Weber.

D) C. Wright Mills.

 

22) The word(s) that Max Weber used to stress the need for sociologists to take into account people’s emotions, thoughts, beliefs, understandings, and attitudes was

A) verstehen.

B) cultural capital.

C) anomie.

D) social capital.

 

23) A sociologist interviews high-salaried corporate chief executive officers (CEOs) to discover whether they feel stress in their everyday lives as a result of the pressure to produce at an unrealistic level. This sociologist is employing

A) alienation.

B) anomie.

C) verstehen.

D) globalization techniques.

 

24) An ideal type is a(n)

A) body of knowledge obtained by methods based on systematic observation.

B) construct or model that serves as a measuring rod against which actual cases can be evaluated.

C) detailed plan or method for obtaining data scientifically.

D) initiator of people’s attitudes or behavior.

 

25) A sociology instructor asks students to make lists of the characteristics of the best and worst possible instructors. These lists, which would be used to evaluate all instructors, would form an example of a(n)

A) typology.

B) ideal type.

C) verstehen.

D) hypothesis.

 

26) In The Communist Manifesto, Marx argued that the working class must

A) ally with capitalists to build a better world.

B) try to work toward a return to feudalism.

C) overthrow the existing class system of capitalist societies.

D) ignore all aspects of class divisions.

 

 

 

27) Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels said, “The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles…. The ________ have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE!”

A) bourgeoisie

B) proletarians

C) Vulcans

D) middle classes

 

28) Marx viewed the relationship between the capitalists and the exploited workers in systemic terms; that is, he believed that a system of ________ relationships maintained the power and dominance of the owners over the workers.

A) environmental, economic, and cultural

B) social, cultural, and political

C) political, environmental, and social

D) economic, social, and political

 

29) In Karl Marx’s analysis, society was fundamentally divided between

A) separate genders that clash in pursuit of their own interests.

B) economic classes that clash in pursuit of their own class interests.

C) different races that clash in pursuit of their own interests.

D) the religious and the nonreligious who clash in pursuit of their own interests.

 

30) Which of the following sociologists advocated basic research on the lives of Blacks?

A) Robert Merton

B) Jane Addams

C) W. E. B. DuBois

D) C. Wright Mills

 

31) For W. E. B. DuBois, which of the following was considered essential in combating prejudice and achieving tolerance and justice?

A) Mass protests

B) Common sense

C) Knowledge

D) Surveys

 

32) W. E. B. DuBois saw the importance of religion to society, and he focused on religion at the

A) personal level.

B) community level.

C) state level.

D) national level.

 

33) The division of an individual’s identity into two or more social realities is referred to as

A) racial fetishism.

B) double rejection.

C) bipolar racism.

D) double consciousness.

 

34) W. E. B. DuBois developed the concept of

A) double consciousness.

B) racial fetishism.

C) double rejection.

D) bipolar racism.

 

35) In his study of society, Charles Horton Cooley focused on

A) class issues.

B) divorce.

C) intimate, face-to-face groups.

D) suicide.

 

36) Early female sociologists such as Jane Addams were often active in poor urban areas as leaders of community centers known as

A) settlement houses.

B) communes.

C) collective homes.

D) utopian communities.

 

37) Although some of the early sociologists saw themselves as social reformers, by the middle of the 20th century the focus of the discipline of sociology had shifted to

A) theorizing and gathering information.

B) a de-emphasis on the scientific method.

C) applied sociology.

D) advocacy of civil rights for minorities.

 

38) Which sociologist is especially known for making an important contribution to the discipline by successfully combining theory and research?

A) C. Wright Mills

B) Jane Addams

C) Harriet Martineau

D) Robert Merton

 

39) Which of the following would be an example of cultural capital?

A) The reciprocal trust inherent in social networks

B) Knowledge of great American authors

C) A close network of extended relatives

D) Knowledge of Laotian cuisine

 

40) Networks, which are built on reciprocal trust are referred to as

A) cultural capital.

B) latent functions.

C) manifest functions.

D) social capital.

 

41) Which sociologist saw society as a vast network of connected parts, each of which helps to maintain the system as a whole?

A) Karl Marx

B) Erving Goffman

C) Max Weber

D) Talcott Parsons

 

42) Sociological studies that focus on large-scale phenomena or entire civilizations are known as

A) microsociology.

B) interactionism.

C) macrosociology.

D) dramaturgy.

 

43) ________ stresses the study of small groups and often uses experimental study in laboratories.

A) Microsociology

B) Macrosociology

C) Middle-range sociology

D) Conflict theory

 

44) A study of divorce rates among the populations of Canada, England, the U.S., and France, is an example of

A) alienation.

B) anomie.

C) microsociology.

D) macrosociology.

 

45) A sociologist studies drug-use patterns among small groups of college students in a Midwestern college. This would be an example of

A) conflict theory.

B) functionalism.

C) macrosociology.

D) microsociology.

 

46) ________ embraces the study of formal organizations and social movements.

A) Global sociology

B) Microsociology

C) Macrosociology

D) Mesosociology

 

47) Studying the impact of the Dakota Access Pipeline on the environment is an example of

A) mesosociology.

B) microsociology.

C) macrosociology.

D) global sociology.

 

48) The study and comparison of the cultural norms of two nations is a component of

A) mesosociology.

B) microsociology.

C) macrosociology.

D) global sociology.

 

49) The study of international crime rates is an example of

A) mesosociology.

B) microsociology.

C) macrosociology.

D) global sociology.

 

50) Émile Durkehim’s cross-cultural study of suicide falls under the category of

A) mesosociology.

B) microsociology.

C) global sociology.

D) macrosociology.

 

51) A sociologist who studies the unequal economic reality between men and women would probably be following which of the following perspectives?

A) Functionalism

B) Interactionism

C) Conflict

D) Globalism

 

52) Which sociological perspective would view society as a living organism in which each part of the organism contributes to its survival and stability?

A) Functionalist perspective

B) Conflict perspective

C) Interactionist perspective

D) Global perspective

 

53) An unconscious or unintended function that may reflect hidden purposes of an institution is referred to as

A) manifest.

B) conflict.

C) dysfunction.

D) latent.

 

54) Which sociological perspective would be most likely to argue that the existence of big-city political machines suggests that these political organizations satisfy certain basic social needs?

A) Functionalist perspective

B) Conflict perspective

C) Interactionist perspective

D) Global perspective

 

55) According to the functionalist perspective, an aspect of social life would be passed on from one generation to the next if it

A) can be used by one group to subjugate another group.

B) enhances impression management.

C) promotes value consensus among members of a society.

D) is dysfunctional.

 

56) Which of the following could be a manifest function of colleges?

A) They are a place to meet future husbands or wives.

B) They sometimes fail to teach students how to read or write effectively.

C) They help to maintain the economic status quo in the U.S.

D) They prepare students for post-college careers.

 

57) An element or a process of society that may actually disrupt a social system or lead to a decrease in stability is known as a

A) latent function.

B) manifest function.

C) dysfunction.

D) conflict function.

 

58) Children who experience divorce in their family are more likely to experience divorce themselves when they are adults. This could be considered an example of a

A) dysfunction of families.

B) latent function of families.

C) manifest function of families.

D) proactive function of families.

 

59) Which sociological perspective sees the social world as being in continual struggle?

A) Functionalist perspective

B) Conflict perspective

C) Interactionist perspective

D) Global perspective

 

60) Critics of television often suggest that executives of major television networks and movie corporations are wealthy White males who decide which programs or movies will be produced and which directors and actors will obtain jobs in the industry. This analysis reflects the

A) functionalist perspective.

B) conflict perspective.

C) interactionist perspective.

D) global perspective.

 

 

 

61) How institutions, such as the government, may help to maintain the privileges of some groups is a topic of interest for

A) globalization theorists.

B) conflict theorists.

C) interactionist theorists.

D) functionalist theorists.

 

62) Which sociological approach focuses on the macro level and would tend to view inequality in gender as central to behavior and organization?

A) Functionalist perspective

B) Conflict perspective

C) Interactionist perspective

D) Feminist perspective

 

63) Which sociologist explored what it meant to be female and Black living in the U.S.?

A) Jane Addams

B) Ida Wells-Barnett

C) Harriet Martineau

D) Sherry Turkle

 

64) Theorist Eve Sedgwick (1990) argues that any analysis of society is incomplete if it does not include

A) both macro- and micro-level views of the subject of study.

B) a consideration of the patriarchal nature of government and business management systems.

C) the spectrum of sexual identities that people embrace.

D) comprehensive data on the common symbology that the society has adopted.

 

65) Which sociological perspective generalizes about everyday forms of social interaction in order to understand society as a whole?

A) Functionalist perspective

B) Conflict perspective

C) Interactionist perspective

D) Global perspective

 

66) Which sociological perspective holds the view that people create their social worlds through interaction and manipulation of symbols?

A) Functionalist

B) Conflict

C) Interactionist

D) Global

 

67) Which sociologist is widely regarded as the founder of the interactionist perspective?

A) C. Wright Mills

B) George Herbert Mead

C) Charles Horton Cooley

D) Erving Goffman

 

68) Which sociological perspectives are most concerned with macro-level analysis?

A) Functionalist and interactionist perspectives

B) Global and interactionist perspectives

C) Interactionist and conflict perspectives

D) Functionalist and conflict perspectives

 

69) Inequality, capitalism, and stratification are key concepts of which theoretical perspective?

A) Functionalist perspective

B) Conflict perspective

C) Interactionist perspective

D) Global perspective

 

70) In examining any aspect of society, which sociological perspective emphasizes the contribution that aspect makes to overall social stability?

A) Functionalist perspective

B) Conflict perspective

C) Interactionist perspective

D) Global perspective

 

71) Which sociological perspective would most likely argue that the social order is based on coercion and exploitation.

A) Functionalist perspective

B) Conflict perspective

C) Interactionist perspective

D) Global perspective

 

72) The state of Ohio has a dwindling population. In an effort to increase the birthrate in the state, it offers a $5,000 bonus to all families giving birth in the state for the next three years. Which of the following is the latent function?

A) An increase in the birth rate for the state of Ohio

B) An increase in the population in the state of Ohio

C) An increase in the need for teachers as a result of more children in the Ohio educational system

D) An increase in the state’s budget deficit due to the number of bonuses distributed to families

 

73) Which sociological approach would view sports as an agent for defining people’s social positions as players, coaches, and referees as a result of their performances and reputations?

A) Functionalist perspective

B) Conflict perspective

C) Interactionist perspective

D) Feminist perspective

 

 

 

74) Which sociological perspective would view sports as a form of big business in which profits are more important than the health and safety of athletes?

A) Functionalist perspective

B) Conflict perspective

C) Interactionist perspective

D) Global perspective

 

75) Which sociological perspective would view sports as serving as a safety valve for both participants and spectators, allowing them to shed tension and aggressive energy in a socially acceptable way?

A) Functionalist perspective

B) Conflict perspective

C) Interactionist perspective

D) Feminist perspective

 

76) Which sociological perspective would most likely suggest that sports help to maintain people’s physical well-being?

A) Functionalist perspective

B) Conflict perspective

C) Interactionist perspective

D) Feminist perspective

 

77) The view that sports serve as an “opiate” for social injustices and distract people from focusing on the reality of personal problems and social issues would most likely be held by

A) functionalists.

B) conflict theorists.

C) interactionists.

D) global sociologists.

 

78) Which sociological perspective would suggest that sports participants may work together harmoniously and abandon previously held stereotypes and prejudices despite class, racial, and religious differences?

A) Functionalist perspective

B) Queer theory

C) Interactionist perspective

D) Feminist perspective

 

79) Which sociological perspective would highlight the reluctance among professional athletes to display any sexual identity other than heterosexuality in public?

A) Interactionist perspective

B) Queer theory

C) Feminist perspective

D) Functionalist perspective

 

 

 

80) The view that laws are set up to assist those who are in positions of power is most consistent with the

A) functionalist perspective.

B) conflict perspective.

C) interactionist perspective.

D) feminist perspective.

 

81) ________ is a sociological framework in which human beings are viewed as living in a world of meaningful objects.

A) Functionalism

B) Globalism

C) Interactionalism

D) Feminism

 

82) Medical sociology and environmental sociology fall under the discipline of

A) basic sociology.

B) applied sociology.

C) clinical sociology.

D) pure sociology.

 

83) The use of the discipline of sociology with the specific intent of altering social relationships or restructuring social institutions is known as

A) basic sociology.

B) clinical sociology.

C) applied sociology.

D) macrosociology.

 

84) The use of sociology with the specific intent of yielding practical applications for human behavior and organizations is referred to as

A) pure science.

B) clinical sociology.

C) applied sociology.

D) basic sociology.

 

85) George Herbert Mead served on committees dealing with Chicago’s labor problems and public education. His activities fall under the field of

A) social inequality.

B) applied sociology.

C) basic sociology.

D) economic inequality.

 

86) Which of the following statements is true?

A) Clinical sociologists take direct responsibility for implementing their ideas.

B) There are no established methods for educating clinical sociologists.

C) Applied and clinical sociology are the same.

D) Clinical sociology has existed for only the last twenty years.

 

87) Which statement about the international coffee trade is the most accurate?

A) The coffee trade relies upon the exploitation of cheap labor.

B) The Starbucks success story only exists in the U.S.

C) Most coffee pickers are unionized and well paid.

D) The coffee trade relies upon the exploitation of cheap labor; and most coffee pickers are unionized and well paid.

 

88) What is considered to be the major theme of analysis in sociology today?

A) Social inequality

B) Individual inferiority

C) Genetic influences

D) Mental disturbance

 

89) A condition in which members of society have differing amounts of wealth, prestige, or power is referred to as

A) social inequality.

B) pure sociology.

C) applied sociology.

D) social psychology.

 

90) Sociology is the systematic study of social behavior and the study of individual personality differences.

 

91) A sociologist who develops theories based off of their experiences and conversations is using common sense, rather than scientific analysis, to formulate those theories.

 

92) A key element of sociological imagination is the ability to view one’s own society from the perspective of personal experiences and cultural biases.

 

93) The most effective sociological theories tend to have both explanatory and predictive power.

 

94) Theories are attempts to explain events, forces, materials, ideas, or behavior in a comprehensive manner.

 

95) Karl Marx saw the factory as the center of conflict between society’s exploiters and the exploited masses.

 

96) In the middle of the twentieth century, the focus of sociology shifted from theorizing and information gathering to a more active interest in transforming society.

 

97) Having a grandmother who sits on the board of trustees for your college and helps you gain entrance is an example of social capital.

 

98) Knowledge of Van Gogh, Rembrandt, and the works of other celebrated painters would be an example of cultural capital.

 

99) One of Robert Merton’s most significant contributions to sociology was the attempt to merge the micro-level and macro-level approaches to the study of society.

 

100) All sociologists view the world as a stable and ongoing entity.

 

101) The conflict perspective emphasizes the way in which the parts of a society are structured to maintain its stability.

 

102) The conflict perspective considers how laws reinforce the position of those in power.

 

103) Applied sociology is dedicated to facilitating change by altering social relationships or restructuring social institutions.

 

104) The goal of applied sociology is to assist in resolving social problems, such as poverty and homelessness.

 

105) Describe what C. Wright Mills meant by the term sociological imagination. Provide an example of how you would apply the tool.

 

106) Discuss what separates sociology from common sense. Be sure to give some examples of how sociological research might dispel commonly accepted views.

 

107) Summarize the contributions of Émile Durkheim, Max Weber, Karl Marx, and W. E. B. DuBois to the field of sociology. Be sure to note any theoretical differences they may have with one another.

 

108) Define the concepts social capital and cultural capital. Then, perform some reflexive thinking and list all the examples of social and cultural capital you possess so far. How does your social and cultural capital differ from that of your friends? How about your classmates?

 

109) Explain what W. E. B. DuBois meant by his term “double consciousness.” Does a White person have this consciousness? What consequences would such a consciousness have on “the self”?

 

110) Identify a social change that has both manifest and latent functions. List and explain the manifest and latent functions that resulted.

 

111) Explain the similarities and differences among the three major sociological perspectives of functionalism, conflict theory, and symbolic interactionism. Identify which perspectives use a macro-level or a micro-level of analysis.

 

112) Describe the similarities and differences between conflict theory and the feminist perspective.

 

 

 

113) Describe how queer theory has challenged some long-standing assumptions about the nature of sexual identity and the ways in which it is understood or referenced at the macro level of society.

 

114) Discuss why social inequality has become such a dominant theme in the field of sociology today.

 

115) Define and discuss globalization. Use the examples in the text to discuss the negative and positive social consequences of globalization.

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