# Solution Manual for Introduction to Computing Systems: From Bits & Gates to C & Beyond 2nd Edition Yale Patt, Sanjay Patel

**ISBN 10: 0072467509**

** ISBN 13: 9780072467505**

*Introduction to Computing Systems: From bits & gates to C & beyond*, now in its second edition, is designed to give students a better understanding of computing early in their college careers in order to give them a stronger foundation for later courses. The book is in two parts: (a) the underlying structure of a computer, and (b) programming in a high level language and programming methodology.

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F .1 Chapter 1 Solutions

1.1 Every computer can do the same thing as every other computer . A smaller or slower computer

will just take longer .

1.2 No.

1.3 It is hard to increase the accuracy of analog machines.

1.4 Ambiguity.

1.5 (a) inputs to first (x) box are a and x

output of first (x) box is ax

inputs to second (+) box are ax and b

output of second (+) box is ax + b

(b) inputs to first (+) box are w and x

output of first (+) box is w + x

inputs to second (+) box are y and z

output of second (+) box is y + z

inputs to third (+) box are (w + x) and (y + z)

output of third (+) box is w + x + y + z

inputs to fourth (x) box are (w + x + y + z) and .25

output of fourth (x) box is 0.25(w + x + y + z), which is the average

(c) The key is to factor a^2 + 2ab + b^2 = (a + b) ^2

inputs to first (+) box are a and b

output of first (+) box is a + b

inputs to second (x) box are (a + b) and (a + b)

output of second (x) box is (a + b)^2 = a^2 + 2ab + b^2

1.6 Any ambiguous statement is fine. For example: I ate my sandwich on a bed of lettuce. The

sandwich might have been sitting on a bed of lettuce on the plate, or I might have been sitting

on a bed of lettuce eating a sandwich.

1.7 If the taxi driver is honorable, he/she asks you whether time or money is more important to

you, and then gets you to the airport as quickly or as cheaply as possible. Y ou are freed

from knowing anything about the various ways one can get to the airport. If the taxi driver is

dishonorable, you get to the airport late enough to miss your flight and/or at a taxi fare far in

excess of what it should have been, as the taxi driver takes a very circuitous route.

1.8 He could mean a lot of things. This statement is ambiguous as it could mean different things.

Some reasonable interpretations are: a) John saw the man in “the park with a telescope” b)

John saw the “man in the park” with a telescope.

As this statement is ambiguous, it is unacceptable as a statement in a program.

1.9 Y es, if phrased in a way that is definite and lacks ambiguity .

1.10 Definiteness: each step is precisely stated.

Effective Computability: each step can be carried out by a computer .

Finiteness: the procedure terminates.

1.11 (a) Lacks definiteness: Go south on Main St. for a mile or so.

(b) Lacks effective computability: Find the integer that is the square root of 14.

(c) Lacks finiteness: Do something. Repeat forever .

1.12 (a) Lacks definiteness, since it does not specify how two rows are to be added. Also, the

3rd or the 4th row could be added to the first row. So there are two posible answers.

(b) This is not effectively computable, because there is no end to the number line. Anything

in volving infinity must not be effectively computable. This is also not finite, for the

same reason.

(c) This is an algorithm.

(d) This is not finite, so it is not an algorithm. If, as Calvin suspects, the coin is weighted,

they will be flipping that coin forever .

(e) This is not finite, so it is not an algorithm. Steps 1 to 6 calculate, albeit in a long way ,

the number – 1. If the given number is negative or zero, then there will never be a time

when you get 0 at the end of step 6.

1.13 Both computers, A and B, are capable of solving the same problems. Computer B can perform

subtraction by taking the negative of the second number and adding it to the first one. As A

and B are otherwise identical, they are capable of solving the same problems.

1.14 (a) 120 transformation processes.

(b) Any 3 of this form are fine: “Sort Algorithm 3, Fortran program, SP ARC ISA, SP ARC

microarchitecture 1”.

(c) 120 again.

1.15 Advantages of a higher level language: Fewer instructions are required to do the same amount

of work. This usually means it takes less time for a programmer to write a program to solve a

problem. High level language programs are generally easier to read and therefore know what

is going on. Disadvantages of a higher level language: Each instruction has less control over

the underlying hardware that actually performs the computation that the program frequently

executes less fficiently .

NOTE: this problem is beyond the scope of Chapter 1 or most students.

1.16 Possible operations, data types, addressing modes.

1.17 An ISA describes the interface to the computer from the perspective of the 0s and 1s of

the program. For example, it describes the operations, data types, and addressing modes

a programmer can use on that particular computer . It doesn’t specify the actual physical

implementation. The microarchitecture does that. Using the car analogy , the ISA is what the

driver sees, and the microarchitecture is what goes on under the hood.

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